FRENCH CHILDREN OF THE HOLOCAUST

A memorial
Serge Klarsfeld  

 
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old, and 22 were less than 18-12 boys and 10 girls. Most of those deported had just been arrested in the Occupied Zone and sent to Pithiviers. The youngest, Marie-Louise Warenbron (12) and Rebecca Nowodworski (13), were taken with their parents. They were both arrested in the Loiret.

With this transport, Pithiviers and Beaune-la-Rolande, the Loiret camps, were emptied, in preparation for the arrival of the 4,000 children and their parents who had been arrested in the infamous Paris roundups of July 16 and17 and placed temporarily in the Vélodrome d'Hiver – Vel d'Hiv – the large indoor winter sports stadium in Paris.

Convoy 7, July 19, 1942 (Drancy) This was the first convoy partly filled with Jews caught and arrested in the Vel d'Hiv roundup. It also took some of those arrested in the July 15 roundup in Bordeaux (172); women from the Parisian camp of Les Tourelles (47); and several hundred interned at Drancy since August 1941. Sixty-one people on this convoy were under 18; five of them were young girls. By age, the largest group were under 18, all born between 1924 and was between 43 and 54. There were 429 men in this category, some of whom were deported with their children (39 of the total were born in 1924). Of the 61 under 18, 57 were from Paris and the rest from Bordeaux.

Convoy 8, July 20, 1942 (Angers) This was the only convoy organized by the Gestapo to go directly to Auschwitz from the outlying areas of the Occupied Zone. It carried 824 deportees, some arrested by the German police and some brought to Angers from such internment camps as Lalande, near Tours, and Poitiers. It was the result of a broad sweep of Jews from the entire western part of France. Many French Jews were included, contravening the July 2 Bousquet-Knochen accord under which foreign-born Jews were to be substituted for French-born Jews in filling deportation quotas. The Gestapo at Angers disregarded the accord.

The convoy was comprised of Jews from the western provinces of Maine-et-Loire, Mayenne, Sarthe, Vienne, Indre-et-Loire, Loire-Atlantique, Charente, and Ille-et Vilaine. One hundred twenty were under 18; 54 – almost half – were born in France; and 54 were female. They were almost all teenagers: 116 were born between 1924 and 1927, and three others in 1928. The youngest was Iwan Angel, born February 23, 1940, to Turkish parents at Saint-Nazaire. His family was among those arrested in Saint Nazaire, and he had the ill-fated distinction of being the first baby from France deported to Auschwitz.

Convoy 9, July 22, 1942 (Drancy) Forty-one of the 996 deportees on convoy 9 were under 18, all born between 1924 and 1927. The German orders were strict: no deportees under age 15, since Berlin had not yet decided to deport this age group. Just over half (22) were girls. They all lived in or around Paris, but most were not French born and were, in fact, selected because of their foreign birth. One was born in Paris, 28 in Poland (17 in Warsaw), and 12 in Germany (6 in Berlin).

Convoy 10, July 24, 1942 (Drancy) This is the first convoy in which women outnumbered men, significantly in this case, both
    
   

FRENCH CHILDREN OF THE HOLOCAUST

A memorial
Serge Klarsfeld

 
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