Part I The Jewish
Question until 1941 |
1. The Incubation Period of Hitler's
Anti-Jewish Action (1933 1938)
Hitler was as prudent in the
launching of his anti-Jewish action as he was in demonstrating that the Third
Reich was destined, by expansion, to become Great Germany.
and March 1933, anti-Jewish exactions took place in several localities.
(1) The terms "Judeo Bolshevism" and
"Judeo-plutocracy" also continued to form part of the Nazi vocabulary, which
was henceforth endowed with the dignity of being a governmental one. This
alarming news arrived abroad and set off protests in the international press.
Hitler attributed these anti Nazi reactions to Jewish emigration from the Reich
and retorted immediately by officially ordering, at the end of March, the
boycott of Jewish businesses, doctors and lawyers.
(2) This boycott lasted but one day, the
first of April. Goebbels noted on April third: "The propaganda of atrocities
has diminished very considerably. That is why the Cabinet has decided to not
resume the boycott for the moment." He added that this means of pressure would
be maintained as a menace without actually being applied. Until November 1938,
Hitler carefully endeavored to avoid all public demonstrations against the
Until November 1938 (with the exception of Austria, annexed to
the Reich), the exclusion of Jews from the professions was effected with
caution and a certain hesitation. The first legislative act against the social
position of the Jews of Germany was taken some days after the boycott. In the
law of April 7, 1933, on the reform of the Civil Service, the prohibition of
Jews in public office was implied. A law of April 25 introduced a quota for
Jews in the schools and universities. The law of September 29, 1933, created
the Chamber of Culture of the Reich, to which writers, journalists and artists
were obliged to belong. This law excluded non Aryans but allowed for
exceptions. It was only in January 1939 that Goebbels insistantly [sic] ordered
the "dejudaizing of the Chambers." (3)